Experimental feature

Lustre arrays

Kind 2 supports the traditional Lustre V5 syntax for arrays.


Array variables can be declared as global, local or as input/output of nodes. Arrays in Lustre are always indexed by integers (type int in Lustre), and the type of an array variable is written with the syntax t ^ <size> where t is a Lustre type and <size> is an integer literal or a constant symbol.

The following

A : int ^ 3;

declares an array variable A of type array of size 3 whose elements are integers. The size of the array can also be given by a defined constant.

const n = 3;
A : int ^ n;

This declaration is equivalent to the previous one for A.

An interesting feature of these arrays is the possibility for users to write generic nodes and functions that are parametric in the size of the array. For instance one can write the following node returns the last element of an array.

node last (const n: int; A: int ^ n) returns (x: int);
  x = A[n-1];

It takes as input the size of the array and the array itself. Note that the type of the input A depends on the value of the first constant input n. In Lustre, calls to such nodes should of course end up by having concrete values for n, this is however not the case in Kind 2 (see Extension to unbounded arrays).

Arrays can be multidimensional, so a user can declare e.g. matrices with the following

const n = 4;
const m = 5;

M1 : bool ^ n ^ m;
M2 : int ^ 3 ^ 3;

Here M1 is a matrix of size 4x5 whose elements are Boolean, and M2 is a square matrix of size 3x3 whose elements are integers.


M1 can also be viewed as an array of arrays of Booleans.

Kind 2 also allows one to nest datatypes, so it is possible to write arrays of records, records of arrays, arrays of tuples, and so on.

type rational = { n: int; d: int };

rats: rational^array_size;
mm: [int, bool]^array_size;

In this example, rats is declared as an array of record elements and mm is an array of pairs.


In the body of nodes or at the top-level, arrays can be defined with literals of the form

A = [2, 5, 7];

This defines an array A of size 3 whose elements are 2, 5 and 7. Another way to construct Lustre arrays is to have each elements be the same value. This can be done with expressions of the form <value> ^ <size>. For example the two following definitions are equivalent.

A = 2 ^ 3;
A = [2, 2, 2];

Arrays are indexed starting at 0 and the elements can be accessed using the selection operator [ ]. For instance the result of the evaluation of the expression A[0] for the previously defined array A is 2.

The selection operators can also be applied to multidimensional arrays. Given a matrix M defined by

M = [[1, 2, 3],
     [4, 5, 6],
     [7, 8, 9]];

then the expression M[1][2] is valid and evaluates to 6. The result of a single selection on an n-dimensional array is an (n-1)-dimensional array. The result of M[2] is the array [7, 8, 9].

Unsupported features of Lustre V5

Kind 2 currently does not support the following features of Lustre V5:

  • Array concatenation like [0, 1] | [2, 3, 4]

  • Array slices like A[0..3], A[0..3 step 2], M[0..1][1..2] or M[0..1, 1..2]

  • The operators are not homomorphically extended. For instance or has type bool -> bool -> bool, given two arrays of Booleans A and B, the expression A or B will be rejected at typing by Kind 2

  • Node calls don’t have an homomorphic extension either

Extension to unbounded arrays

Kind 2 provides an extension of Lustre to express equational constraints between unbounded arrays. This syntax extension allows users to inductively define arrays, give whole array definitions and allows to encode most of the other unsupported array features. This extension was originally suggested by Esterel.


Here, by unbounded we mean whose size is an unbounded constant.

In addition, we also enriched the specification language of Kind 2 to support (universal and existential) quantifiers, allowing one to effectively model parameterized system.

Whole array definitions

Equations in the body of nodes can now take the following forms

  • A = <term> ; This equation defines the values of the array A to be the same as the values of the array expression <term>.

  • A[i] = <term(i)> ; This equation defines the values of all elements in the array A. The index i has to be a symbol, it is bound locally to the equation and shadows all other mentions of i. Index variables that appear on the left hand side of equations are implicitly universally quantified. The right hand side of the equation, <term(i)> can depend on this index. The meaning of the equation is that, for any integer i between 0 and the size of A, the value at position i is defined as the term <term(i)>.

Semantically, a whole array equation is equivalent to a quantified equation. Let A be an array of size an integer constant n, then following equation is legal.

A[i] = if i = 0 then 2 else B[i - 1] ;

It is equivalent to the formula ∀ i ∈ [0; n]. ( i = 0 ⇒ A[i] = 2 ) ⋀ ( i ≠ 0 ⇒ A[i] = B[i-1] ).

Multidimensional arrays can also be redefined the same way. For instance the equation

M[i][j] = if i = j then 1 else 0 ;

defines M as the identity matrix

[[ 1 , 0 , 0 ,..., 0 ],
 [ 0 , 1 , 0 ,..., 0 ],
 [ 0 , 0 , 1 ,..., 0 ],
 .................... ,
 [ 1 , 0 , 0 ,..., 1 ]]

It is possible to write an equation of the form

M[i][i] = i;

but in this case the second index i shadows the first one, hence the definition is equivalent to the following one where the indexes have been renamed.

M[j][i] = i;

Inductive definitions

One interesting feature of these equations is that we allow definitions of arrays inductively. For instance it is possible to write an equation

A[i] = if i = 0 then 0 else A[i-1] ;

This is however not very exciting because this is the same as saying that A will contain only zeros, but notice we allow the use of A in the right hand side.

Dependency analysis

Inductive definitions are allowed under the restriction that they should be well founded. For instance, the equation

A[i] = A[i];

is not and will be rejected by Kind 2 the same way the equation x = x; is rejected. Of course this restriction does not apply for array variables under a pre, so the equation A[i] = pre A[i]; is allowed.

In practice, Kind 2 will try to prove statically that the definitions are well-founded to ensure the absence of dependency cycles. We only attempt to prove that definitions for an array A at a given index i depends on on values of A at indexes strictly smaller than i.

For instance the following set of definitions is rejected because e.g. A[k] depends on A[k].

A[k] = B[k+1] + y;
B[k] = C[k-1] - 2;
C[k] = A[k] + k;

On the other hand this one will be accepted.

A[k] = B[k+1] + y;
B[k] = C[k-1] - 2;
C[k] = ( A[k-1] + B[k] ) * k ;

Because the order is fixed and that the checks are simple, it is possible that Kind 2 rejects programs that are well defined (with respect to our semantic for whole array updates). It will not, however, accept programs that are ill-defined.

For instance each of the following equations will be rejected.

A[i] = if i = 0 then 0 else if i = 1 then A[0] else A[i-1];
A[i] = if i = n then 0 else A[i+1];
A[i] = if i = 0 then 0 else A[0];


This section gives some examples of usage for inductive definitions and whole array updates as a way to encode unsupported features and as way to encode complicated functions succinctly.

Sum of the elements in an array

The following node returns the sum of all elements in an array.

node sum (const n: int; A: int ^ n) returns (s: int);
var cumul: int ^ n;
  cumul[i] = if i = 0 then A[0] else A[i] + cumul[i-1];
  s = cumul[n-1];

We declare a local array cumul to store the cumulative sum (i.e. cumul[i] contains the sum of elements in A up to index i) and the returned value of the node is the element stored in the last position of cumul.

Note that this node is parametric in the size of the array.

Array slices

Array slices can be trivially implemented with the features presented above.

node slice (const n: int; A: int ^ n; const low: int; const up: int)
returns (B : int ^ (up-low));
  B[i] = A[low + i];
Homomorphic extensions

Encoding an homomorphic or on Boolean arrays is even simpler.

node or_array (const n: int; A, B : bool^n) returns (C: bool^n);
  C[i] = A[i] or B[i];

Defining a generic homomorphic extension of node calls is not possible because nodes are not first order objects in Lustre.

Parameterized systems

It is possible to describe and check properties of parameterized systems. Contrary to the Lustre compilers, Kind 2 does not require the constants used as array sizes to be instantiated with actual values. In this case the properties are checked for any array sizes.

node slide (const n:int; s: int) returns(A: int^n);
  A[i] = if i = 0 then s else (-1 -> pre A[i-1]);

  --%PROPERTY n > 1 => (true -> A[1] = pre s);

This node stores in an array A a sliding window over an integer stream s. It saves the values taken by s up to n steps in the past, where n is the size of the array.

Here the property says, that if the array A has at least two cells then its second value is the previous value of s.

Quantifiers in specifications

To better support parameterized systems or systems with large arrays, we expose quantifiers for use in the language of the specifications. Quantifiers can thus appear in properties, contracts and assertions.

Universal quantification is written with:

forall ( <x : type>;+ ) P(<x>+)

where x are the quantified variables and type is their type. P is a formula or a predicate in which the variable x can appear.

For example, the following

forall (i, j: int) 0 <= i and i < n and 0 <= j and j < n => M[i][j] = M[j][i]

is a formula that specifies that the matrix M is symmetric.


Existential quantification takes the same form except we use exists instead of forall.

Quantifiers can be arbitrarily nested and alternated at the propositional level.


The same parameterized system of a sliding window, slightly modified to express the property that A contains in each of its cells, an uninitialized value (i.e. value -1), or one of the previous values of the stream s.

node slide (const n:int; s: int) returns(ok: bool^n);
var A: int^n;
  A[i] = if i = 0 then s else (-1 -> pre A[i-1]);
  ok[i] = A[i] = -1 or A[i] = s or (false -> pre ok[i]);

  --%PROPERTY forall (i: int) 0 <= i and i < n => ok[i];


One major limitation that is present in the arrays of Kind 2 is that one cannot have node calls in inductive array definitions whose parameters are array selections.

For instance, it is currently not possible to write the following in Kind 2 where A and B are array and some_node takes values as inputs.

node some_node (x: int) returns (y: int);

A, B: int^4;

A[i] = some_node(B[i]);

This limitation exists only for technical implementation reasons. A workaround for the moment is to redefine an homorphic extension of the node and use that instead.

node some_node (const n: int; x: int^n) returns (y: int^n);

A, B: int^4;

A = some_node(4, B);

Command line options

We provide different encodings of inductive array definitions in our internal representation of the transition system. The command line interface exposes different options to control which encoding is used. This is particularly relevant for SMT solvers that have built-in features, whether it is support for the theory of arrays, or special options or annotations for quantifier instantiation.

These options are summed up in the following table and described in more detail in the rest of this section.




Use the builtin theory of arrays in solvers


Instantiate quantifiers over array bounds in case they are statically known


Define recursive functions for arrays (for CVC4)

The default encoding will use quantified formulas for inductive definitions and whole array updates.

For example if we have

A : int^6;
A[k] = x;

we will generate internally the constraint

∀ k: int. 0 <= k < 6 => (select A k) = x

These form of constraint are handled in an efficient way by CVC4 (thanks to finite model finding).


By default arrays are converted using ah-hoc selection functions to avoid stressing the theory of arrays in the SMT solvers. This option tells Kind 2 to use the builtin theory of arrays of the solvers instead. If you want to try it, it’s probably a good idea to use it in combination of --smtlogic detect for better performances.


By default, Kind 2 will generate problems with quantifiers for arrays which should be useful for problems with large arrays. This option tells Kind 2 to instantiate these quantifiers when it can reasonably do so. Only CVC4 has a good support for this kind of quantification so you may want to use this option with the other solvers.

The previous example

A : int^6;
A[k] = x;

will now be encoded by the constraint

(select A 0) = x ⋀ (select A 1) = x ⋀ (select A 2) = x ⋀ (select A 3) = x ⋀ (select A 4) = x ⋀ (select A 5) = x


This uses a special kind of encoding to tell CVC4 to treat quantified definitions of some uninterpreted functions as recursive definitions.